Wiki code, otherwise known as wiki markup, is a computer language used on MediaWiki sites such as WikiMac (now known as the Apple Wiki) and Wikipedia.

Wiki markup

In the left column of the table below, you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.

You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference.

Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines

What it looks like What you type

Start your sections as follows:

New section

Subsection

Sub-subsection

  • Start with a second-level heading (==); do not use first-level headings (=).
  • Do not skip levels (e.g., second-level followed by fourth-level).
  • A Table of Contents will automatically be added to an article that has four or more sections.
==New section==

===Subsection===

====Sub-subsection====

A single newline generally has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Some editors find that this aids editing and improves the function diff (used internally to compare different versions of a page).

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

  • When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (see below).
A single newline
generally has no effect on the layout. 
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the function ''diff'' 
(used internally to compare
different versions of a page).

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.

You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

  • Please use this sparingly.
  • Close markup between lines, don't start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.
You can break lines<br>
without starting a new paragraph.
  • Lists are easy to do:
    • Start every line with a star.
      • More stars means deeper levels.
        • A newline in a list

marks the end of a list item.

  • An empty line starts a new list.
* Lists are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars means deeper levels.
**** A newline in a list
marks the end of a list item.

* An empty line starts a new list.
  1. Numbered lists are also good
    1. very organised
    2. easy to follow
      1. easier still
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organised
## easy to follow
### easier still
  • You can even do mixed lists
    1. and nest them
      • like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this
Definition list 
list of definitions
item 
the item's definition
another item
the other item's definition
  • One item per line; a newline can appear before the colon, but using a space before the colon improves parsing.
; Definition list : list of definitions
; item : the item's definition
; another item
: the other item's definition
A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

  • This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
ENDIF
  • This is useful for:
    • pasting preformatted text;
    • algorithm descriptions;
    • program source code;
    • ASCII art;
    • chemical structures;
  • WARNING: If you make it wide, you force the whole page to be wide and hence less readable, especially for people who use lower resolutions. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.
 IF a line starts with a space THEN
 it will be formatted exactly
 as typed;
 in a fixed-width font;
 lines won't wrap;
 ENDIF
Centered text.
  • Note the American spelling of "center" (not "centre").
<center>Centered text.</center>

A horizontal dividing line: this is above it


and this is below it.

  • Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.
  • Also used to disambiguate within an article without creating a separate page.
A horizontal dividing line:
this is above it
----
and this is below it.

Links and URLs

What it looks like What you type

Beijing has public transport.

  • A link to another Apple Wiki article.
  • Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
  • Thus the link above is to the URL http://mac.wikicities.com/index.php/Public_transport, which is the WikiMac article with the name "Public transport". See also WikiMac:Canonicalisation.
Beijing has [[public transport]].

Zurich also has public transportation.

  • Same target, different name.
  • This is a piped link.
Zurich also has
[[public transport|public transportation]].

Zurich also has public transportation.

Examples include buses, taxis and trams.

  • Endings are blended into the link.
  • Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
Zurich also has
[[public transport]]ation.

Examples include buses, taxis
and trams.

See the WikiMac:Manual of Style.

See the [[WikiMac:Manual of Style]].

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: iTunes.

Automatically hide namespace: Village Pump.

Or both: Manual of Style

But not: [[WikiMac:Manual of Style#Links|]]

  • The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page (see previous entry).
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[iTunes (Windows)|]].

Automatically hide namespace: 
[[WikiMac:Village Pump|]].

Or both:
[[WikiMac:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

But not:
[[WikiMac:Manual of Style#Links|]]

Transportation in Taipei is a page that doesn't exist yet.

  • You can create it by clicking on the link (but please don't do so with this particular link).
  • To create a new page:
    1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
    2. Save that page.
    3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
  • For more information, see How to start a page and check out WikiMac's naming conventions.
  • Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
[[Transportation in Taipei]] is a page 
that doesn't exist yet.

WikiMac:Wiki code is this page.

  • Self links appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
  • Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see the Manual of Style.
[[WikiMac:Wiki code]] is this page.

When adding a comment to a Talk page, you should sign it by adding three tildes to add your user name:

David Feng

or four to add user name plus date/time:

David Feng 18:00, Jun 19, 2004 (UTC)

Five tildes gives the date/time alone:

18:00, Jun 19, 2004 (UTC)
  • The first two both provide a link to your user page.
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it by adding
three tildes to add your user name:
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
Five tildes gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~
  • Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "System 7.5.2 -- officially Mac OS 7.5.2").
  • Note that, while it is possible to link to a section, it is not possible to redirect to a section. For example, "#REDIRECT [[Mac OS 7.5.2#Price]]" will redirect to the Mac OS 7.5.2 page, but not to any particular section on it. This feature will not be implemented in the future, so such redirects should not be used.
#REDIRECT [[Mac oS 7.5.2]]
  • Link to a page on the same subject in another language by using a link of the form: [[language code:Title]].
  • It does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
  • Please see WikiMac:Interlanguage links and the list of languages and codes.
[[zh:悲伤的Mac图标]]

What links here and Related changes pages can be linked as: Special:Whatlinkshere/WikiMac:How to edit a page and Special:Recentchangeslinked/WikiMac:How to edit a page

'''What links here''' and '''Related changes'''
pages can be linked as:
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/WikiMac:How to edit a page]]
and
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/WikiMac:How to edit a page]]

A user's Contributions page can be linked as: Special:Contributions/UserName or Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0

A user's '''Contributions''' page can be linked as:
[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]
or
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]
  • To put an article in a WikiMac:Category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
[[Category:Character sets]]
  • To link to a WikiMac:Category page without putting the article into the category, use an initial colon (:) in the link.
[[:Category:Character sets]]

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-123-45678-X

  • Link to books using their ISBN numbers. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors.
  • ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-123-45678-X

Date formats:

  1. July 20, 1969
  2. 20 July 1969
  3. 1969-07-20
  • Link dates in one of the above formats, so that everyone can set their own display order. If logged in, you can use Special:Preferences to change your own date display setting.
  • All of the above dates will appear as "20 July 1969" if you set your date display preference to "15 January 2001", but as "July 20, 1969" if you set it to "January 15, 2001".
Date formats:
# [[July 20]], [[1969]]
# [[20 July]] [[1969]]
# [[1969]]-[[07-20]]

Sound

  • To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.

Some uploaded sounds are listed at WikiMac:Sound.

[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]

Images

What it looks like What you type
A picture: SadMacIcon.jpg

or, with alternative text: Sad Mac Icon

or, floating to the right side of the page and with a caption:

Sad Mac Icon


or, floating to the right side of the page without a caption:

Sad Mac Icon

  • Only images that have been uploaded to WikiMac can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.
  • See the image use policy for more hints.
  • Alternative text, used when the image isn't loaded, in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternate text for images for help on choosing it.
  • The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
A picture: [[Image:SadMacIcon.jpg]]

or, with alternative text:
[[Image:SadMacIcon.jpg|Sad Mac Icon]]

or, floating to the right side of the page and with a caption:
[[Image:SadMacIcon.jpg|frame|Sad Mac Icon]]

or, floating to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption:
[[Image:SadMacIcon.jpg|right|Sad Mac Icon]]

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:SadMacIcon.jpg


[[:Image:SadMacIcon.jpg]]

To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.


Image of a Sad Mac Icon



[[media:SadMacIcon.jpg|Image of a Sad Mac Icon]]

Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasise, strongly, very strongly.

  • These are double and triple apostrophes (single-quote marks), not double-quote marks.
''Emphasise'', '''strongly''', '''''very strongly'''''.


sinx + lny


x = 0

Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis, and should not use <i> or <b>. However, mathematical formulas often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulas should use <math> markup, and simple formulas may use <math>; or <i> and <b>; or '' and '''. Wiki markup is preferred over HTML markup like <i> and <b>.

<math>\sin x + \ln y</math>

sin''x'' + ln''y''

<math>\mathbf{x} = 0</math>

'''x''' = 0

A typewriter font for monospace text or for computer code: int main()

  • For semantic reasons, using <code> where applicable is preferable to using <tt>.
A typewriter font for <tt>monospace text</tt>
or for computer code: <code>int main()</code>

You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup rather than visual markup.

  • When editing regular WikiMac articles, just make your changes and don't mark them up in any special way.
  • When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup
rather than visual markup.

Diacritical marks:
è é ê ë ì í

À �? Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì �? Î �? Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ


è é ê ë ì í

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; 
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; 
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; 
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; 
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; 
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil; 
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; 
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; 
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”


&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤


&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; 
&pound; &curren;

Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or x¹ x² x³

  • The latter method of superscripting can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

1 hectare = 1 E4 m²


x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub>
x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup>
or x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]

Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω


&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; 
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; 
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi; 
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;

Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ →
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔


&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; &rarr;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;

Spacing in simple math formulas:
Obviously, x² ≥ 0 is true.

  • To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, use non-breaking spaces: &nbsp;.


Obviously, ''x''&sup2;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;0 is true.

Complicated formulas:

  • See m:Help:Formula for how to use <math>.
  • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.


: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[WikiMac FAQ]]

  • Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
  • Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
  • Does not escape HTML character references.
  • To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;


<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'') 
the [[WikiMac FAQ]]</nowiki>

Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

  • Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
  • Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.


<!-- comment here -->

Tables

Placement of the Table of Contents (TOC)

At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the TOC to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear. See also compact TOC for alphabet and year headings.

Keeping headings out of the Table of Contents

If you want some subheadings to not appear in the Table of Contents, then make the following replacements.

Replace == Header 2 == with <h2> Header 2 </h2>

Replace === Header 3 === with <h3> Header 3 </h3>

And so forth.

For example, notice that the following header has the same font as the other subheaders to this "Tables" section, but the following header does not appear in the Table of Contents for this page.

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